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THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY            377

wisdom, Locke is no more satisfactory : here again he can only
suggest a few commonplaces, as, for example, that the boy's
mind should be raised to great and worthy thoughts to exclude
falsehood and cunning. The rest, he adds, which is to be learned
from time, experience, observation, and an acquaintance with
men, " is not to be expected in the ignorance and inadvertency
of childhood, or the inconsiderate heat and unwariness of youth."*
Hence, in spite of what he has said about its relative unimportance,
Locke has more to say about learning than about virtue and
wisdom. Here the main feature of interest is in his comprehensive
programme of studies. This seems to comprise some six groups
of subjects : (a) Reading^ (which is begun as soon as the boy can
talk) ; then writing ; then drawing, and perhaps shorthand.
(b) French j[which is to be learned orally as soon as he can speak
English) ; a year or two later, Latin ; English, to be studied all
the time, (c) Geography (the globes)  leading on to arithmetic,
eometn^ which with chronology culminates in

the study of Jaigtorg,. especially Roman history, (d) Ethics, from
the Bible; then when he can read Latin, from Cicero's De
Officiis ; at a later time, international and ordinary law. (e) The
art of speaking and writing English. (/) Dancing, fencing, and
twoTmaimal occupations, preferably gardening and

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working in woodland book-keeping. Subjects wEcITaf <T3efiBe>"""
liteiy omitted are Greek^rhetoric anS logic, music and painting,
natural philosophy and the related sciences. (Natural philosophy
is omitted because "the works of nature are contrived by a
wisdom too far surpassing our faculties to discover or capacities
to conceive, for us ever to be able to reduce them to a science." f)
This is at once a broad and a narrow curriculum. It is broad,
as the courtly education of the time went, in including all the
subjects required to fit the young gentleman for the duties of his
station in court and in public life. It is narrow, as judged by the
standards of culture, in excluding literature and the other great
aesthetic interests. Yet there is compensation for its rather blatant
utilitarianism in the fact that by its very limitations it brought
into prominence certain subjects to which most previous educators
had done less than justice. Locke's plea for the thorough mastery
of English, for example, is admirable, and needed to be made in
spite of all that had been said to the same effect by others before
*  140.             f  190.

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